In general, education focuses on ‘knowledge’. But by teaching knowledge students wouldn’t be able to develop thinking skills to be a leader or decision maker (refer to ‘Something you should know about learning knowledge by understanding!’).
Then, what to focus for learning and teaching? The best but most difficult one is ‘thought process-based learning and teaching’. But this requires systematic training and takes time (the shortest is about 4 years). And the goal of ‘thought process-based education’ is for learners to develop their brain power beyond known geniuses such as Isaac Newton or Albert Einstein.
Thus, Min has developed one extra learning and teaching methods which named as goal-oriented learning and teaching. However, individual learner might not be able to follow this easily simply due to lack of experiences, this article will be focusing on teaching.
Please note. The method is not a subject and this is a method. You can apply for any subjects.
There are three different learning and teaching methods (for details, please refer ‘thought process-based education’ book #1).
- Understanding-based learning and teaching
- Goal-oriented learning and teaching level 1
- Goal-oriented learning and teaching level 2
Understanding-based learning and teaching
This is the simplest ways of learning and teaching thus primitive brain function. In short, one learns by experiences. You ate a poisonous fruit (direct experience, observation), you get sick (this is a result) and you learn that the fruit has poison (this is knowledge), remember, not eating the fruit (decision) and even can teach others. Or you see someone get sick or die (indirect experience, observation), you learn and teach others.
There is decision making step but in decision making does not require any thinking process. Experience and observation directly connected to the decision making.
This is how all the animals with brains learn and (or) teach. This is not human way of teaching.
Goal-oriented learning and teaching level 1
This is one step advanced level of brain function due to increase memory capacity. As memory capacity and experience accumulates, brain can now observe and learn.
As an example, lion cubs learn how to hunt (the goal) by observing their parents hunting. Wolves learn how to hunt salmon by observing bears (http://www.whitewolfpack.com/2014/08/wolves-learns-to-fish-for-salmon-by.html).
In this case, the process of learning is observation Decision ==> Experience.
Basically, brain starts to learn without experiences but still experiences are key to achieve the goals. And this is also common for some animals with brains. Also, copying and pasting others’ work is from this brain function.
Goal-oriented learning and teaching level 2
Unlike the level 1, there is analysis and prediction steps added to the level of brain function. With the data (observation/description) collected, brain start to analyze and predict the unknown before making decision.
Data collection ==> Analysis, Prediction ==> Decision making ==> Action
This brain function is the key for technology development. Up to the goal-oriented learning and teaching level 1, it didn’t require thinking processes. But for this level, thinking process is essential and this is only for human brain.
The most extensive field based on this process must be the Ph.D. level.
Why educators should teach students to develop method?
- To be a leader or decision maker, students need to predict unknown with logic.
- The method can be applied for their future work regardless of their fields.
How to teach?
Have students to collect raw data might not be idea in education field unless students do their own research. So, collect data from known resources.
Ask students to exclude all others (such as reasoning and solutions for the problem). – The whole process is train students to develop skills for data analysis, prediction and decision making. Not training students to follow others.
With collected data, walk through together to analyze the data. How to organize, arrange etc.
Have students to predict with logic. At this time, class discussion could encourage students. However, it is the educator who has more tools. Students need to be exposed to them.
Once students develop logics around the data, it is relatively simple to make decision.
Cycle through I to IV using known data until make hypothesis (questions to explore unknown)!
- Students might be fixed on the results instead of data in data collection steps. In this case, educators should guide students to distinguish the raw data with processed data (which including reasonings and goals of the authors) with reasonings and differences between processed and raw data.
- Educators should demonstrate what strategies to be used for data analysis with reasonings. Without reasonings, the whole process will roll back to the goal-oriented teaching level 1.